Current Research

I am an Academic Research Fellow in the Institute for Climate and Atmospheric Science since February 2013. I combine expertise in atmospheric science and volcanology to advance the current understanding of volcanic impacts and hazards. In particular, I investigate the impact of volcanism on atmospheric chemistry, climate, air quality, human health, ecosystems and aviation using a wide range of atmospheric models and volcanological datasets. I also apply my atmospheric chemistry and aerosol modelling skills to non-volcanic topics in atmospheric and climate sciences.

In general, my research interests are:

- tropospheric volcanic aerosol
- Laki-type Icelandic volcanic eruptions
- sulphur emissions from continuously degassing volcanoes
- modelling aerosol microphysical processes
- palaeo-volcanism and mass extinctions
- palaeo-climate: aerosol-chemistry-biosphere interactions

PhD Project (Oct 2007 - Mar 2011)

I completed my PhD entitled "Modelling tropospheric volcanic aerosol: from aerosol microphysical processes to Earth system impacts" in March 2011. The overall goal of this PhD project was to make progress in assessing the atmospheric perturbations created by flood lava eruptions using the Leeds Global Model of Aerosol Processes (GLOMAP) implemented in the 3-D chemical transport model (TOMCAT).

GLOMAP is capable of predicting size-resolved aerosol mass and number concentrations which allowed me to quantify the impact of the 1783-1784 AD Laki flood lava eruption on microphysical processes and the global cloud condensation nuclei budget (Schmidt et al., 2010, ACP). I also assessed the potential impact of a future Laki-style eruption on air quality and human health in Europe by quantifying the changes in particulate matter mass concentrations due to such an eruption (Schmidt et al., 2011, PNAS). Lastly, I used GLOMAP to investigate the sensitivity of the global pre-industrial cloud condensation nuclei budget to sulphur emissions from continuously degassing volcanoes which also included an assessment of the magnitude of the cloud albedo effect (Schmidt et al., 2012, ACP).

 

Publications






Submitted / under review

Schmidt, A., Mills, M.J., Ghan, S., Gregory, J.M., Allan, R.P., Andrews, T., Conley, A., Forster, P.M., Gettelman, A., Solomon, S., and Toon, O.B., Current and near-future volcanic forcing of global climate change. (submitted)

Swindles, G.T, Watson, E..J., Savov, I.P., Lawson, I.T., Schmidt, A., Hooper, A., Cooper, C.L, Connor, C.B., Gloor, M., and Carrivick, J.L., Climatic control on Icelandic volcanic activity during the Holocene. (under review)

Stone, K., Solomon, S., Kinnison, D., Pitts, M.C., Poole, L.R., Mills, M.J., Schmidt, A., Neely III, R.R., Ivy, D., Schwartz, M.J., Johnson, B.J., Tully, M.B., Klekociuk, A.R., Sasaki, T., and König-Langlo, G., Observing the impact of Calbuco volcanic aerosols on South Polar ozone depletion in 2015. (under review)

Cooper, C.L., Swindles, G.T., Savov, I.P., Schmidt, A. , and Bacon, K.L., Evaluating the relationship between climate change and volcanism. (submitted)

Mills et al. (including Schmidt, A.), Radiative and chemical response to interactive stratospheric sulfate aerosols in fully coupled CESM1(WACCM). (under review)

2017

35. Malavelle, F. et al. (including Schmidt, A.), Strong constraints on aerosol-cloud interactions from volcanic eruptions, Nature, (in press).

34. Ilyinskaya, E., Schmidt, A., Mather, T.A., Pope, F.D., Witham, C., Baxter, P.J., Johansson, T., Barsotti, S., Pfeffer, M., Singh, A., Sanderson, P., Bergsson, B., McCormick Kilbride, B., Donovan, A., Peters, N.J., Oppenheimer, C., and Edmonds, M. (2017): Understanding the environmental impacts of large fissure eruptions: Aerosol and gas emissions from the 2014-2015 Holuhraun eruption (Iceland), Earth and Planetary Science Letters, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2017.05.025.

33. Ivy, D., Solomon, S., Kinnison, D., Mills, M.J., Schmidt, A., and Neely, R.R., The influence of the Calbuco eruption on the 2015 Antarctic ozone hole in a fully coupled chemistry-climate model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 2556–2561, doi:10.1002/2016GL071925.

32. Glaze, L. S., Self, S., Schmidt, A., and Hunter, S.J. (2017): Assessing eruption column height in ancient flood basalt eruptions. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. (download)

2016

31. Solomon, S., Kinnison, D., Garcia, R.R., Bandoro, J., Mills, M.J., Wilka, C., Neely, R.R., Schmidt, A., Barnes, J., Vernier, J.-P., and Höpfner, M. (2016): Monsoon circulations and tropical heterogeneous chlorine chemistry in the stratosphere, Geophysical Research Letters, 43, pp.12624-12633, doi:10.1002/2016GL071778.

30. Pope, R.J., Butt, E.W., Chipperfield, M.P., Doherty, R.M., Fenech, S., Schmidt, A., Arnold, S.R., and Savage, N.H. (2016): The impact of synoptic weather on UK surface ozone and implications for premature mortality, Environ. Res. Lett., 11, 124004, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/11/12/124004.

29. Vignelles, D., T.J. Roberts, E. Carboni, E. Ilyinskaya, M. Pfeffer, P. Dagsson-Waldhauserova, A. Schmidt, et al. (2016): Balloon-borne measurement of the aerosol size distribution from an Icelandic flood basalt eruption. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 453, pp.252-259. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2016.08.027

28. Solomon, S., D.I. Ivy, D. Kinnison, M.J. Mills, R.R. Neely, and A. Schmidt (2016): Emergence of Healing in the Antarctic Ozone Layer, Science, DOI: 10.1126/science.aae0061.

27. Zanchettin, D., M. Khodri, C. Timmreck, M. Toohey, A. Schmidt, E. P. Gerber, G. Hegerl, A. Robock, F. S. Pausata, W. T. Ball, S. E. Bauer, S. Bekki, S. S. Dhomse, A. N. LeGrande, G. W. Mann, L. Marshall, M. Mills, M. Marchand, U. Niemeier, V. Paulain, A. Rubino, A. Stenke, K. Tsigaridis and F. Tummon (2016). The Model Intercomparison Project on the climatic response to Volcanic forcing (VolMIP): Experimental design and forcing input data, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 1-33. (download)

26. M.J. Mills, A. Schmidt, R. Easter, S. Solomon, D.E. Kinnison, S.J. Ghan, R.R. Neely III, D.R. Marsh, A. Conley, C.G. Bardeen, and A. Gettelman (2016): Global volcanic aerosol properties derived from emissions, 1990-2014, using CESM1(WACCM), J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, doi:10.1002/2015JD024290. (download)

25. Zanchettin, D., Timmreck, C., Khodri, M., Robock, A., Rubino, A., Schmidt, A., and Toohey, M., A coordinated modeling assessment of the climate response to volcanic forcing, PAGES. (not peer-reviewed)

24. G. Mann, S. Dhomse, T. Deshler, C. Timmreck, A. Schmidt, R. Neely, L. Thomason, Global particle size evolution key to improved volcanic forcings, PAGES. (not peer-reviewed)

23. Butt, E. W., Rap, A., Schmidt, A., Scott, C. E., Pringle, K. J., Reddington, C. L., Richards, N. A. D., Woodhouse, M. T., Ramirez-Villegas, J., Yang, H., Vakkari, V., Stone, E. A., Rupakheti, M., S. Praveen, P., G. van Zyl, P., P. Beukes, J., Josipovic, M., Mitchell, E. J. S., Sallu, S. M., Forster, P. M., and Spracklen, D. V.: The impact of residential combustion emissions on atmospheric aerosol, human health, and climate, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 873-905, doi:10.5194/acp-16-873-2016, 2016. (download)

22. Schmidt, A., Skeffington, R., Thordarson, T., Self, S., Forster, P. M., Rap, A., Ridgwell, A., Fowler, D., Wilson, M., Mann, G. W., Wignall, P. B., and K. S. Carslaw (2016), Selective environmental stress from sulphur emitted by continental flood basalt eruptions. Nature Geoscience , doi:10.1038/ngeo2588

2015

21. Schmidt, A., et al. (2015), Satellite detection, long-range transport, and air quality impacts of volcanic sulfur dioxide from the 2014–2015 flood lava eruption at Bárðarbunga (Iceland). J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, doi:10.1002/2015JD023638. (download, open access)

20. Gettelman, A., Schmidt, A., and Kristjánsson, J. E. (2015): Icelandic volcanic emissions and climate. Nature Geoscience, (download)

19. Schmidt, A. (2015): Volcanic gas and aerosol hazards from a future Laki-type eruption in Iceland. In: Elsevier Volume #2 of the Hazards, Disaster & Risks Series: Volcanoes. (download)

18. Schmidt, A., Fristad, K., and Elkins-Tanton, L.T. (Eds): Volcanism and Global Environmental Change, Cambridge University Press (2015).

17. Self, S., Glaze, L., Schmidt, A., Mather, T. A. (2015), Gas release from flood basalt eruptions: understanding the potential environmental effects. In: Schmidt A; Fristad K; Elkins-Tanton LT (Ed) Volcanism and Global Environmental Change, Cambridge University Press, ISBN-13 978-1107058378.

16. Schmidt, A. and Robock, A. (2015), Volcanism, the atmosphere, and climate through time. In: Schmidt A; Fristad K; Elkins-Tanton LT (Ed) Volcanism and Global Environmental Change, Cambridge University Press, ISBN-13 978-1107058378. (download chapter)

2014

15. Schmidt, A., Witham, C.S., Theys, N., Richards, N.A.D., Thordarson, T., Szpek, K., Feng, W., Hort, M.C., Woolley, A.M., Jones, A.R., Redington, A.L., Johnson, B.T., Hayward, C.L., and Carslaw, K.S., Assessing hazards to aviation from sulfur dioxide emitted by explosive Icelandic eruptions (2014): J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, doi:10.1002/2014JD022070. (download, open access)

14. Ridley, D., S. Solomon, J. E. Barnes, V.D. Burlakov, T. Deshler, S.I. Dolgii, A.B. Herber, T. Nagai, R. R. Neely III, A.V. Nevzorov, C. Ritter, T. Sakai, B. D. Santer, M. Sato, A. Schmidt, O.Uchino, J. P. Vernier, Uncertainties in recent volcanic aerosol optical depths and implications for global climate change (2014): Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, doi:10.1002/2014GL061541.

13. Self, S., Schmidt, A., and Mather, T.A. (2014): Emplacement characteristics, timescales, and gas release rates of continental flood basalt eruptions on Earth. In Keller, G., and Kerr, A.C., eds., Volcanism, Impacts, and Mass Extinctions: Causes and Effects: Geological Society of America Special Paper 505, p. 319-337, doi:10.1130/2014.2505(16) (download, open access).

12. Schmidt, A., Thordarson, T., Oman, L.D., Robock, A., Self, S. (2014): Reply to comment by Cole-Dai et al. on 'Climatic impact of the long-lasting Laki eruption: Inapplicability of mass-independent sulfur isotope composition measurements', J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., pp.2013JD021440. doi: 10.1002/2013JD021440

2013

11. Partanen, A., Laakso, A., Schmidt, A., Kokkola, H., Kuokkanen, T., Pietikäinen, J., Kerminen, V., Lehtinen, K., Laakso, L., and Korhonen, H. (2013): Climate and air quality trade-offs in altering ship fuel sulfur content., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12059-12071, doi:10.5194/acp-13-12059-2013 (download, open access)

10. Loughlin, S. C., Aspinall, W. P. A., Vye?Brown, C., Baxter, P. J., Braban, C., Hort, M., Schmidt, A., Thordarson, T., Witham, C. (2013): Large?magnitude fissure eruptions in Iceland: source characterisation. BGS Open File Report, OR/12/098. (not peer-reviewed)

9. Browse, J., Carslaw, K.S., Schmidt, A., Corbett, J.J. (2013): Impact of future Arctic shipping on high-latitude black carbon deposition, Geophysical Research Letters, 40(13), doi: 10.1002/grl.50876.

8. Rap, A., Scott, C.E., Spracklen, D.V., Bellouin, N., Forster, P.M., Carslaw, K.S., Schmidt, A., and Mann, G.W. (2013): Natural aerosol direct and indirect radiative effects, Geophysical Research Letters, 40, doi:10.1002/grl.50441.

7. Schmidt, A. (2013): Modelling tropospheric volcanic aerosol: from aerosol microphysical processes to Earth system impacts, Springer Theses, XV, 1 45 p., ISBN 978-3-642-34839-6.

2012

6. Schmidt, A., Thordarson, T., Oman, L.D., Robock, A., Self, S. (2012): Climatic impact of the long-lasting 1783 Laki eruption: Inapplicability of mass-independent sulfur isotopic composition measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 117, D23116, doi:10.1029/2012JD018414 (download a copy).

5. Schmidt, A., Carslaw, K. S., Mann, G. W., Rap, A., Pringle, K. J., Spracklen, D. V., Wilson, M., and Forster, P. M. (2012): Importance of tropospheric volcanic aerosol for indirect radiative forcing of climate, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 12, 7321-7339, doi:10.5194/acp-12-7321-2012 (download, open access).

4. Mann, G.W., Carslaw, K.S., Ridley, D.A., Spracklen, D.V., Pringle, K.J., Merikanto, J., Korhonen, H., Schwarz, J. P., Lee, L. A., Manktelow, P.T., Woodhouse, M.T., Schmidt, A., Breider, T.J., Emmerson, K.M., Chipperfield, M.P., and Pickering, S.J. (2012): Intercomparison of modal and sectional aerosol microphysics representations within the same 3D global chemical transport model. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4449-44766, doi:10.5194/acp-12-4449-2012 (download, open access) .

2011

3. Schmidt, A., Ostro, B., Carslaw, K.S., Wilson, M., Thordarson, T., Mann, G.W. and Simmons, A. (2011): Excess mortality in Europe following a future Laki-style Icelandic eruption, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108, 38, 15710-15715. (download a copy, open access)

pre 2011

2. Schmidt, A., Carslaw, K.S., Mann, G.W., Wilson, M., Breider, T.J., Pickering, S.J., and Thordarson, T. (2010): The impact of the 1783-1784 AD Laki eruption on global aerosol formation processes and cloud condensation nuclei, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 6025-6041, doi:10.5194/acp-10-6025-2010 (download, open access).

1. Chiodini, G., Caliro, S., Cardellini, C., Avino, R., Granieri, D., and Schmidt, A. (2008): Carbon isotopic composition of soil CO2 efflux, a powerful method to discriminate different sources feeding soil CO2 degassing in volcanic-hydrothermal areas. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Volume 274, Issues 3-4, Pages 372-379.

Prizes and Awards

I received the 2016 William Smith Fund from the Geological Society of London, UK.

2016 Women of Achievement Award from the University of Leeds, UK.

I received the 2015 IAVCEI George Walker Award for volcanology.

In April 2012 I was awarded the Springer Thesis publication prize for my PhD thesis, and I also recently received a PGR student prize for the PNAS paper from the School of Earth and Environment.

In December 2010, I was awarded 3rd prize in the University of Leeds Postgraduate Researcher of the Year competition.

Talks / seminars (selected)

Schmidt, A. (2015): Environmental effects of sulfur emitted by large-scale flood lava eruptions, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge. (invited seminar)

Schmidt, A. (2015): Source characteristics, long-range transport and air quality impacts of sulfur emitted at Holuhraun (Iceland), IGT, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds. (invited seminar)

Schmidt, A. (2015): Long-range transport and air quality impacts of sulfur dioxide emitted at Nornahraun (Iceland), Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Reykjavik, Iceland. (Friday seminar)

Schmidt, A. (2015): Long-range transport and air quality impacts of sulfur dioxide emitted at Holuhraun (Iceland), 51st Annual Volcanic and Magmatic Studies Conference, Norwich. (talk)

Schmidt, A. (2014): Climatic and environmental effects of sulfur emitted by large-scale flood basalt eruptions. Geological Society of America, Vancouver, Canada. (Invited Pardee Keynote Symposia)

Schmidt, A. (2014): Environmental and climatic effects of volcanic aerosol: past, present and future. Earth and Planetary Science Seminar Series, University of California, Berkeley, USA. (invited seminar)

Schmidt, A. et al (2013): Importance of tropospheric volcanic aerosol for indirect radiative forcing of climate. AGU, San Francisco, California, USA.

Schmidt, A. et al (2013): Importance of tropospheric volcanic aerosol for indirect radiative forcing of climate. IAMA, Davis, California, USA. (invited talk)

Schmidt, A. et al (2013): Sulfur pollution from Icelandic volcanic eruptions. 2nd IUGG-WMO workshop on Ash dispersal forecast and civil aviation. World Meteorological Organization Geneva, 18-20 November 2013. (invited talk)

Schmidt, A. et al (2013): What if a Laki-type eruption were to happen tomorrow? IAVCEI 2013, Kagoshima, Japan. (invited talk)

Schmidt, A. et al (2013): Importance of tropospheric volcanic aerosol for indirect radiative forcing of climate. IAVCEI 2013, Kagoshima, Japan. (invited talk)

Schmidt, A. et al (2013): Atmospheric and climatic effects of large-scale flood basalt volcanism. IAVCEI 2013, Kagoshima, Japan. (talk)

Schmidt, A. et al (2013): Excess mortality in Europe following an Icelandic Laki-type eruption. IAVCEI 2013 Workshop "Impacts of Volcanic Ashfall and Gas Dispersion", Japan. (invited talk)

Schmidt, A. (Jun 2013): Icelandic volcanism: Hazards of effusive, gas-rich eruptions. Nordic Risk Workshop. London, UK. Organised by Civil Contingencies Secretariat, UK. (Keynote speech)

Schmidt, A. (Apr 2013): Climate and health impacts of tropospheric volcanic aerosol. University of Cambridge, Department of Chemistry. (invited seminar)

Schmidt, A. et al (2013): Self-limiting chemistry, aerosol and climate effects of large-scale flood basalt eruptions. Conference on Volcanism, Impacts and Mass Extinctions, Natural History Museum, London, UK. (Talk)

Schmidt, A. et al (2012): Importance of tropospheric volcanic aerosol for indirect radiative forcing of climate. AGU Chapman Conference on Volcanism and the Atmosphere, Selfoss, Iceland. (Talk & Poster) (Media coverage by Science News)

Schmidt, A. et al (2012): Future Icelandic flood lava eruptions: towards a probabilistic impact assessment., AGU Chapman Conference on Volcanism and the Atmosphere, Selfoss, Iceland. (Poster)

Schmidt, A. (2012): Large-scale Icelandic flood lava eruptions: from aerosol microphysical processes to public health impacts. Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, UK. (invited seminar)

Schmidt, A. et al (2012): Excess mortality following a future Laki-style Icelandic eruption. 30th Nordic Geological Winter meeting, Iceland, Reykjavik.

Schmidt, A. (Oct 2011): Large-scale Icelandic flood lava eruptions: from aerosol microphysical processes to public health impacts., School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, UK. (invited seminar)

Schmidt, A. et al (2011): Excess mortality in Europe following a future Laki-style Icelandic eruption., EAC 2011, Manchester, UK.

Schmidt, A. et al (2011): What if a Laki-style eruption were to happen tomorrow?, Severe Aerosol Events Workshop/Conference, Hamburg, Germany.

Schmidt, A. et al (2011): What if a Laki-style eruption were to happen tomorrow?, VMSG 2011, UK, Cambridge.

Schmidt, A. et al (2010): Impact of the 1783-84 AD Laki Eruption on Cloud Condensation Nuclei, Cloud Droplet Concentrations and Aerosol Indirect Radiative Forcing. EGU General Assembly 2010.

Schmidt, A. et al (2009): The impact of the 1783-84 AD Laki eruption on Aerosol Formation Processes and Cloud Condensation Nuclei. AGU Fall Meeting 2009, San Francisco.